Established by the Haredi Ashkenazi Jewish sect, this synagogue carries the name of its founder, Rabbi Nissan Beck. It was built as a center for the Haridim sect between 1862 and 1872. It originally comprised three floors, and a high dome was added in 1871 to the building, which was officially inaugurated in 1872. The building is about 20 meters long and 14 meters wide. Its dome is about 20 meters high. The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph contributed to building the dome because the founder of this synagogue was Austrian. The synagogue was damaged during the 1948 war, as the Haganah forces used it as a military post, and later it was used as military barracks with machine guns placed on it dome, and was therefore bombed and destroyed. Most of its walls were rebuilt after the war.
In 2012, the Municipality of Jerusalem approved a plan to rebuild the synagogue, and the cornerstone was placed on 29/5/2014.